Greece has made great strides in its energy sector and is now among the world leaders in renewable electricity generation. It is also a major player in natural gas and solar energy production. Despite its successes in renewable power, however, there are still many concerns regarding Greece's energy future. This article discusses some of these issues.

Natural gas

The global energy crisis has driven prices to rally, putting a significant burden on households and businesses. Greece has introduced a wide range of measures to ease the situation. In November, Greek Environment and Energy Minister Kostas Skrekas announced further measures to help citizens and businesses.

Law 4001/2011 regulates the electricity and natural gas markets in Greece. It sets targets to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 56% by 2030.

As part of the energy transition, Greece plans to phase out older coal-fired power plants by 2025. Newer units will run on a mix of renewables and fossil fuels, with a focus on natural gas.

The country has also established energy communities, which are designed to control the raw materials and processes used for the production of electricity and heat. These communities also manage the installation of high-efficiency appliances and the distribution of raw materials to consumers.


Increasingly, research has been focused on societal perceptions of bioenergy. It is a form of renewable energy which is considered to be a potential source of a cleaner energy future.

Public support for bioenergy is not a given. Studies have found that consumers are less than enthused about government interference in the biofuels market. Moreover, studies indicate that local citizens prefer small scale facilities to large scale bioenergy facilities. The latter is particularly noteworthy considering the importance of localized energy production.

Traditionally, bioenergy research has focused on technological, economic, and environmental aspects. However, the industry is moving toward commercialization. Specifically, it is seeking to establish a robust supply chain which would include feedstock suppliers and end users. This is due to the fact that these groups have diverse interests and values. Therefore, they are important determinants of bioenergy's success.


Photovoltaics in Greece accounted for 6.5% of the country's total electricity mix in 2016. Its penetration is estimated at 34%. Consequently, its potential to expand is quite considerable. But before photovoltaics can grow, it's important to examine the legislative framework governing its development. This article provides a brief outline of some of the most recent laws affecting the sector, as well as the current state of the market.

Law 3468/2006 provided incentives to develop photovoltaics in Greece. The system benefited from generous feed-in-tariffs (FITs), which enabled it to develop rapidly. However, in 2010, the FITs were gradually decreased.

In the meantime, the legislation has been amended to speed up grid-connection procedures. Two subsequent laws have also improved the investment climate.

Although the new laws were aimed at accelerating PV penetration, the sector is still hampered by heavy administrative procedures. Furthermore, market support is scarce. Therefore, the legislation must be adjusted to improve investment incentives and promote the PV industry.

Reactions to price adjustment clauses in greece electricity

The Regulatory Authority for Energy (RAE) received a slew of complaints from consumers regarding the adjustment clause. DEE has a unique edge over other providers in that it has exclusive access to hydropower generation.

The government's Energy and Environment Minister Kostas Skrekas has announced a variety of measures to help citizens. This includes a 250 euro subsidy for economically vulnerable households in December.

While no one is immune to skyrocketing energy prices, the situation has become even worse in Greece. According to a report from the European Commission, the country saw the biggest year-on-year increase in 2Q2022 of all member states.

At the same time, the Greek government is also implementing a variety of energy efficiency projects. It has even proposed a wide cap on the price of natural gas.

Regulation of RES producers in Greece

Greece's RES market has recently experienced a boom. The legislation has been simplified and amended, which will encourage more domestic and foreign investors to enter the RES sector. RES producers can participate directly in Electricity Markets, but they must take certain restrictions into account when transacting with suppliers.

Law 3468/2006 (Law) defines renewable energy, establishes a special legislative framework and provides the main licensing process for RES projects. In addition, it introduced the first state aid scheme for RES based on a guaranteed feed-in tariff.

The Regulatory Authority for Energy (RAE) is a body responsible for monitoring the functioning of the Energy Markets. It is also authorized to oversee RES projects' licensing procedure. RAE is authorized to grant exemptions from third-party access obligations, to approve tariffs for non-competitive activities and to oversee consumer protection.